Child Kidney Dis > Volume 18(2); 2014 > Article
J Korean Soc Pediatr Nephrol 2014;18(2): 71-76. doi:
Prevalence of Voiding Dysfunction and Constipation in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Joon Young Kim, Eun Seob Lee, Ji Seok Bang, Yeon Joung Oh, Yong Ju Lee, Tae-Jung Sung, Kon-Hee Lee, Jung Won Lee
Department of Pediatrics, Hallym University Medical Center, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, Korea
Corresponding Author: Jung Won Lee ,Tel: +82-829-5142, Fax: +82-2-829-5358, Email:
Received: July 11, 2014;  Accepted: August 27, 2014.
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Purpose: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with impairments in frontal inhibitory function and the catecholaminergic system. ADHD is diagnosed in 3-5% of children. Children with ADHD seem develop various forms of urinary problems such as nocturnal enuresis, dysfunctional voiding, and diurnal incontinence. However, no data exist to confirm the presence of these problems in Korean children with ADHD. We investigated the clinical findings of voiding dysfunction in children with ADHD.
Methods: Between October 2009 and March 2011, a total of 63 children (33 with ADHD, 30 with an upper respiratory infection, as a control group) were enrolled. ADHD was diagnosed using the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM)-IV criteria. A comprehensive survey of voiding and defecation was administered.
Results : The patient group included 28 boys and 5 girls; the control group comprised 20 boys and 10 girls. The mean age was 9.09±2.8 years in the ADHD group and 8.58±3.1 years in the control group. Children with ADHD had a statistically significantly higher incidence of urgency (P =0.017), urge incontinence (P =0.033), and constipation (P =0.045). There was no significant difference in the incidence of straining, intermittency, holding maneuvers, or nocturnal enuresis.
Conclusion : Children with ADHD in Korea have significantly higher rates of urgency, urge incontinence, and constipation than those without ADHD.
Key words: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder | Nocturnal enuresis | Urgency | Urge incontinence | Constipation
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