J Korean Soc Pediatr Nephrol > Volume 14(2); 2010 > Article
J Korean Soc Pediatr Nephrol 2010;14(2): 132-142. doi: https://doi.org/10.3339/jkspn.2010.14.2.132
칼륨 대사 장애
울산대학교 의과대학 서울아산병원 소아청소년병원 소아청소년과
Disorders of Potassium Metabolism
Joo-Hoon Lee
Department of Pediatrics, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine Asan Medical Center, Children's Hospital
Received: September 19, 2010;  Revised: September 20, 2010.  Accepted: September 28, 2010.
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Hypokalemia usually reflects total body potassium deficiency, but less commonly results from transcellular potassium redistribution with normal body potassium stores. The differential diagnosis of hypokalemia includes pseudohypokalemia, cellular potassium redistribution, inadequate potassium intake, excessive cutaneous or gastrointestinal potassium loss, and renal potassium wasting. To discriminate excessive renal from extrarenal potassium losses as a cause for hypokalemia, urine potassium concentration or TTKG should be measured. Decreased values are indicative of extrarenal losses or inadequate intake. In contrast, excessive renal potassium losses are expected with increased values. Renal potassium wasting with normal or low blood pressure suggests hypokalemia associated with acidosis, vomiting, tubular disorders or increased renal potassium secretion. In hypokalemia associated with hypertension, plasam renin and aldosterone should be measured to differentiated among hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism, primary hyperaldosteronism, and mineralocorticoid excess other than aldosterone or target organ activation. Hypokalemia may manifest as weakness, seizure, myalgia, rhabdomyolysis, constipation, ileus, arrhythmia, paresthesias, etc. Therapy for hypokalemia consists of treatment of underlying disease and potassium supplementation. The evaluation of hyperkalemia is also a multistep process. The differential diagnosis of hyperkalemia includes pseudohypokalemia, redistribution, and true hyperkalemia. True hyperkalemia associated with decreased glomerular filtration rate is associated with renal failure or increased body potassium contents. When glomerular filtration rate is above 15 mL/min/$1.73m^2$, plasma renin and aldosterone must be measured to differentiate hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism, primary aldosteronism, disturbance of aldosterone action or target organ dysfunction. Hyperkalemia can cause arrhythmia, paresthesias, fatigue, etc. Therapy for hyperkalemia consists of administration of calcium gluconate, insulin, beta2 agonist, bicarbonate, furosemide, resin and dialysis. Potassium intake must be restricted and associated drugs should be withdrawn.
Key words: Potassium | Hypokalemia | Hyperkalemia | Renin | Aldosterone
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