Child Kidney Dis > Volume 18(1); 2014 > Article
J Korean Soc Pediatr Nephrol 2014;18(1): 29-35. doi:
Clinical Characteristics and Prognostic Factors of Vesicoureteral Reflux.
Kim, Wun Kon , Ha, Tae Sun
Department of Pediatrics and Medical Research Institute, College of Medicine Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Korea.
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INTRODUCTION: Persistent vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), a major cause of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children, can result in serious renal complications, such as reflux nephropathy and chronic renal failure. We evaluated the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of VUR. METHODS: From December 1993 to May 2011, we examined 117 children with vesicoureteral reflux who were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics and Urology, Chungbuk National University hospital for a UTI. The patients were managed medically or surgically. RESULTS: Male patients had a slightly higher prevalence of VUR than female patients (55%). The degrees of the 161 refluxing ureters, as classified by the International Reflux Study Committee, were as follows: grade I, 15 ureters; grade II, 32 ureters; grade III, 54 ureters; grade IV, 26 ureters; grade V, 34 ureters. One hundred and sixty-one renal units (115 cases) underwent a 99m TC-DMSA renal scan, and 62% showed abnormal findings. The incidence of renal cortical defects showed a direct correlation with the severity of VUR. Ninety-four refluxing ureters were followed up medically, and 66 ureters (67%) either disappeared or improved. However, 9 refluxing ureters persisted. The spontaneous resolution rate of VUR seemed to be higher in younger patients with lower grades of reflux, and without renal cortical defects. Sixty-seven refluxing ureters (41%) were treated surgically, 62 refluxing ureters (92%) disappeared, and 5 refluxing ureters (8%) persisted. CONCLUSION: The incidence of renal cortical defects in patients with UTIs was 62% (in a 99m TC-DMSA renal scan), and showed a direct correlation with the severity of VUR. The spontaneous resolution rate seemed to be lower in the patients with higher grades of VUR, older age (over 4 years old) and diffuse renal cortical defects.
Key words: Vesicoureteral reflux | Renal cortical defect | Spontaneous resolution | Urinary tract infection

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