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Journal of the Korean Society of Pediatric Nephrology 2013;17(2): 101-109. doi: https://doi.org/10.3339/jkspn.2013.17.2.101
소아에서의 요로결석: 단일기관에서 22년간의 경험
김수연, 김민지, 이주훈, 김건석*, 박영서
1울산대학교 의과대학 서울아산병원 소아청소년병원 소아청소년과
2울산대학교 의과대학 서울아산병원 소아청소년병원 소아비뇨기과*
Pediatric Urolithiasis: Our 22-year Experience at a Single Center
Su-Yon Kim, Min-Jee Kim, Joo Hoon Lee, Kun Suk Kim*, Young Seo Park
1Department of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center, Children’s Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
2Department of Urology*, Asan Medical Center, Children’s Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Corresponding Author: Young Seo Park ,Tel: 02-3010-3374, Fax: 02-473-3725, Email: yspark@amc.seoul.kr
Received: October 10, 2013;  Accepted: October 16, 2013.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http:// creativecommons. org/licenses/bync/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Purpose: Pediatric urolithiasis is uncommon in children but is a cause of significant morbidity and damage to the kidney. Although much information on adult urolithiasis is available in the literature, large studies on the pediatric population are still scarce. In this report, we review our experience with pediatric urolithiasis over 22 years at a tertiary referral center.

Method :
We retrospectively reviewed the records of children with newly diagnosed urolithiasis between January 1991 and May 2013. We assessed the age, sex, family history, initial symptoms, location of stones, underlying cause, stone analysis, treatment, and recurrence among the patients.

Results :
In total, 137 patients (96 male, 41 female) were assessed. The age range was 0-17 years (mean age, 6.0 years). Forty-three (31%) children were aged <1 year, and 37% (16/43) had a history of intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Thirteen patients (9.5%) had a family history of stones. The most common symptoms at presentation among the patients were gross hematuria (56/137, 41%) and flank or abdominal pain (46/137, 34%). The stones were located in the kidney (85/137, 62%), ureter (29/137, 21%), bladder (2/137, 1.4%), and multiple locations (20/137, 15 %). Congenital abnormalities of the genitourinary (G-U) tract, with or without metabolic abnormality, or urinary tract infection (UTI) was detected in 26 children (19%). Ninety-one patients (66%) underwent metabolic examination, and 38% of these patients exhibited an abnormality. UTI, with or without abnormalities of the G-U tract, or metabolic abnormality was detected in 26 children (19%). Of the 35 stones analyzed, the majority were calcium stones (20/35, 57%), followed by infected stones (5/35, 14%), uric acid stones (4/35, 11%), carbonate apatite stones (3/35, 7%), cystine stones (2/35, 6%), and phosphate stones (1/35, 3%). Five patients (4%) required open procedures, with or without non-open procedures, whereas 77 patients (56%) were managed conservatively; the remaining 55 patients (40%) received some other form of intervention. Eighteen patients (13%) had stone recurrence during the follow-up period.

Conclusions :
Pediatric urolithiasis is commonly associated with abnormalities of the G-U tract and/or metabolic disorders and/or UTI. Half of the patients will pass their stones spontaneously, and all the techniques of minimally invasive surgery are applicable in the treatment of children with stones. As the recurrence rates are high among this population, long-term follow-up is recommended and the complete clearance of stones is important.
Key words: Urolithiasis | Children | Pediatric
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